# Euler's Theorem, the Totient Function, and Calculating Totients By Hand

Posted in Mathematics

## Introduction

Today we're going to delve into a little bit of number theory.

In number theory, we are usually dealing with modular arithmetic - expressions of the form:

$$a \equiv b \mod m$$

or

$$f(x) \equiv 0 \mod m$$

The mod indicates we're doing modular arithmetic, which is (formally) an algebraic system called a ring, which consists of the integers 0 through m.

An analogy to modular arithmetic is the way that the sine and cosine function "wrap around," and

 \sin \left …

# Project Euler Problem 1

Posted in Mathematics